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Organisational executives and management can reduce some motivations for employees to become malicious insiders by facilitating a culture of appreciated and engaged employees who have fair remuneration and merit-based career advancement opportunities. With a comprehensive security … This is especially important for software that interacts with untrusted and potentially malicious data. USB flash storage devices infected with malware might be deliberately provided to targeted users as a gift, and have been inadvertently distributed by major vendors at several Australian cyber security conferences. Configure a DMARC DNS record for the organisation’s domain, specifying that emails from the organisation’s domain and subdomains should be rejected if they fail SPF checks (and/or DKIM checks if DKIM is configured for the organisation’s domain). Microsoft note that their Microsoft Windows 10 operating system and Edge web browser natively implement many of EMET’s features and mitigations, making EMET less relevant for Microsoft Windows 10. Vendor products increasingly advertise alternative approaches to determine whether applications, network communication, computer behaviour or associated logs exhibit indications of malicious activity. Disable Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) and associated name resolution services such as NetBIOS Name Service where possible as part of mitigation strategy ‘Operating system hardening’. When deciding on how to implement Security for your business, it is critical to adopt a risk management framework, and there are many which often vary by industry. Such persistence involves malware attempting to persist after the computer is rebooted, for example by modifying or adding Windows Registry settings and files such as computer services. Preferably archive PDF and Microsoft Office attachments, and scan them again for malware every month for several months. The level of security risk might also be affected by whether exploit code for a security vulnerability is available commercially or publicly, for example in an open source tool like the Metasploit Framework or in a cybercrime exploit kit. Multi-factor authentication involves users verifying their identity by using at least any two of the following three mechanisms: If implemented correctly, multi-factor authentication can make it significantly more difficult for adversaries to use stolen user credentials to facilitate further malicious activities against the organisation, including establishing their own VPN or other remote access connection to the organisation’s network. Antivirus software helps to detect malware that includes computer viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware and adware. Security Control: 1505; Revision: 0; Updated: Sep-18; Applicability: O, P, S, TS. Patching Applications and Operating Systems - Two of the Top 4 strategies revolve around patching applications and operating systems. A recent backup of data and proven data restoration process are vital to mitigate data being encrypted, corrupted or deleted by ransomware or other destructive malware, malicious insiders, accidental mistakes by users, or non-malicious failure of storage hardware due to a range of causes including faulty equipment, wear, power outage, fire or flood. Educate employees to lock their computer screen whenever they are away from their computer. This is becoming a mandatory accreditation for companies to be part of a supply chain. For example, on most corporate networks, direct network communication between user computers should not be required or allowed. Such controls include ‘micro-segmentation’ firewalling implemented by the virtualisation platform layer, software-based firewalling implemented in individual computers and virtual machines, and ‘IPsec Server and Domain Isolation’. Use a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) solution to perform real-time automated aggregation and correlation of logs from multiple sources to identify patterns of suspicious behaviour, including behaviour that deviates from the baseline of typical patterns of system usage by users. Data Execution Prevention (DEP), Address Space Layout Randomisation (ASLR) and Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET) [28]. Security Control: 1175; Revision: 3; Updated: Sep-18; Applicability: O, P, S, TS. Nevertheless, non-exhaustive guidance is provided for these threats on the following pages to highlight how the existing mitigation strategies are relevant and can be leveraged as a baseline for mitigating these threats. The use of single sign-on authentication in the organisation might significantly benefit adversaries. Additional implementations include DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM). Use an appropriately configured and secured passphrase manager program, sometimes referred to as a passphrase vault, to assist with storing and managing many complex passphrases. Therefore, protect software distribution systems from modifications which are malicious or otherwise unauthorised, combined with implementing a robust change management process. Microsoft's latest recommended block rules are implemented to prevent application control bypasses. Don't use unsupported versions. Configure EMET rules to mitigate the legitimate Microsoft Windows operating system files regsvr32.exe and rundll32.exe being abused to circumvent application control. System recovery capabilities assist with mitigating destructive malware, malicious insiders who are motivated to destroy systems, and non-malicious failures of critically important IT equipment. Search for hacking tools as well as assembled data repositories which await exfiltration. Security Control: 1508; Revision: 1; Updated: Sep-19; Applicability: O, P, S, TS. Cybersecurity awareness training – improve the ability for staff to identify and react accordingly to potentially malicious files. 1. User education. Visiting such a website might compromise the user’s computer without any obvious indications of compromise for the user to detect. As the current COVID-19 situation develops, organizations must reconsider preventive measures and actions to take should a cyber incident occur. A limited number of ransomware variants have cryptographic weaknesses or their master decryption key has been disclosed, enabling files to be decrypted in limited cases using free tools [9]. Email content filtering helps to prevent the compromise of user computers via adversaries using malicious emails. One approach to sanitising approved business-related attachment types is to use ‘Content Disarm and Reconstruction’ software, which replaces an email attachment with a new file containing the same content but without potentially malicious code. Adversaries could use compromised account credentials, or in some cases exploitable security vulnerabilities affecting other computers in the organisation, to propagate (laterally move) throughout the network in order to locate and access sensitive data. manipulating network traffic using approaches historically used to evade network-based intrusion detection/prevention systems. Develop and enforce a ruleset controlling which computers are allowed to communicate with other computers. Server application hardening helps the organisation to conduct its business with a reduced security risk of malicious data access, theft, exposure, corruption and loss. Also, it is increasingly infeasible to backhaul or otherwise steer network traffic to a single bottleneck location to implement network-based mitigation strategies such as ‘Network-based intrusion detection/prevention system’ and ‘Capture network traffic’. Blocking unneeded/unauthorised network traffic reduces the attack surface of computers by limiting exposure to network services, as well as reducing the ability of adversaries to propagate throughout the organisation’s network. Ensure an operating system patching process is in place. Applications such as web browsers [36] [37] and PDF viewers [38] from some vendors include such an inbuilt sandbox. Three months later, the organisation’s IT staff realised that thousands of files needed for legal proceedings and stored on a network drive (file share) had also been encrypted by the ransomware. The ASD’s February 2017 update, Strategies to Mitigate Cyber Security Incidents, outlines eight essentials that should be taken as the “cybersecurity baseline for all organisations”. process injection, keystroke logging, driver loading and persistence). Initially testing application control in ‘audit’/’logging only’ mode helps organisations to develop an inventory of installed software, while taking care to avoid including existing malware in the inventory. The effectiveness of this mitigation strategy is further reduced if the sensitive data is unstructured and therefore difficult to identify using keywords or data patterns such as regular expressions. Operating system hardening (including for network devices) based on a Standard Operating Environment (SOE), disabling unneeded functionality (e.g. Mitre ATT&CK for Enterprise: Execution – Mshta, PowerShell, Rundll32, Scripting, User Execution, InstallUtil, Scripts (Powershell, VBscript, MSHTA, etc), Code Signing - Set PowerShell execution policy to execute only signed scripts, Disable or Remove Feature or Program - It may be possible to remove PowerShell from systems when not needed, but a review should be performed to assess the impact to an environment since it could be in use for many legitimate purposes and administrative functions, Disable/restrict the WinRM Service - helps prevent uses of PowerShell for remote execution, Privileged Account Management - When PowerShell is necessary, restrict PowerShell execution policy to administrators. Further information about Microsoft patch MS14-025 is available at https://support.microsoft.com/en-au/help/2962486/ms14-025-vulnerability-in-group-policy-preferences-could-allow-elevati. Microsoft Office is configured to prevent activation of Object Linking and Embedding packages. The ACSC has developed guidance to facilitate a risk management approach to applying patches based on the severity and potential business impact of the associated security vulnerabilities. Security Control: 1144; Revision: 9; Updated: Sep-18; Applicability: O, P, S, TS. eCISO takes advantage of the high degree of automation, eliminating the need to integrate multiple vendor systems, which are often not compatible with each other and is backed by Red Piranha's team of experts, to provide Governance, Compliance and Reporting functions to a customer, blended with some on-site services such as reporting at Board meetings. Due to the amount of time that had elapsed, the organisation’s backups contained encrypted copies of the files. SPF, or alternative implementations such as Sender ID, reduce the likelihood of spoofed emails being delivered to the targeted user. Use the latest version of applications since they typically incorporate additional security technologies such as sandboxing and other anti-exploitation capabilities. Australian Government - Australian cyber security centre, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/implementing-application-control, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/essential-eight-linux-environments, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-au/windows/security/threat-protection/windows-defender-application-control/microsoft-recommended-block-rules, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-au/windows/security/threat-protection/windows-defender-application-control/windows-defender-application-control-deployment-guide, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/assessing-security-vulnerabilities-and-applying-patches, https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/govtech/2015/04/21/if-you-do-only-one-thing-to-reduce-your-cybersecurity-risk/, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/microsoft-office-macro-security, https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2016/10/26/office-2013-can-now-block-macros-to-help-prevent-infection/, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/hardening-microsoft-office-365-proplus-office-2019-and-office-2016, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/malicious-email-mitigation-strategies, https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2016/02/02/enhanced-mitigation-experience-toolkit-emet-version-5-5-is-now-available/, https://insights.sei.cmu.edu/cert/2016/11/windows-10-cannot-protect-insecure-applications-like-emet-can.html, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/protecting-web-applications-and-users, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/securing-content-management-systems, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/how-combat-fake-emails, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/detecting-socially-engineered-messages, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/restricting-administrative-privileges, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/implementing-multi-factor-authentication, https://www.microsoft.com/en-au/download/details.aspx?id=46899, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/implementing-network-segmentation-and-segregation, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/bring-your-own-device-executives, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications/risk-management-enterprise-mobility-including-bring-your-own-device, https://support.microsoft.com/en-au/help/2962486/ms14-025-vulnerability-in-group-policy-preferences-could-allow-elevati, https://msrc-blog.microsoft.com/2014/06/05/an-overview-of-kb2871997/, https://support.microsoft.com/en-au/help/2871997/microsoft-security-advisory-update-to-improve-credentials-protection-a, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-au/windows/security/identity-protection/credential-guard/credential-guard, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-au/previous-versions/windows/it-pro/windows-server-2012-R2-and-2012/dn408187(v=ws.11), https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/analyst/membership/36785, https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/analyst/membership/36882, https://www.protectivesecurity.gov.au/personnel/Pages/default.aspx, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/ism, https://www.cyber.gov.au/acsc/view-all-content/publications, Strategies to Mitigate Cyber Security Incidents – Mitigation Details (February 2017).pdf, Strategies to Mitigate Cyber Security Incidents – Mitigation Details (February 2017).docx, Strategies to Mitigate Cyber Security Incidents – Mitigation Details, targeted cyber intrusions (e.g.

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